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被动语态详解

来源:学大教育     时间:2013-10-31 16:41:46


二、几种特殊结构

 

1. 双宾结构

 

(1) My uncle gave me a gift on my birthday.

由词组Give sb. sth. 得出被动sb. be given sth.

I was given a gift by my uncle on my birthday.

 

如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指人)前加适当的介词。

因此,由词组Give sth to sb. 得出被动sth. be given to sb.

A gift was given to me by my uncle on my birthday.

 

总结:含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将其中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个保留;一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。

 

注意:

一般在下列动词后,常在间接宾语前用介词 to.

如:bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。

① The cup with mixture was shown to the class. 

② My bike was lent to her. 

 

一般在下列动词后,间接宾语前用介词 for.

如:build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。

① Mother made me a new skirt.  (A new skirt was made for me.  )

② The meat was cooked for us. 

③ Some country music was played for us. 

 

2. 复合宾语结构,即有宾语补足语的情形

 

(1) The manager found the cook smoking in the kitchen. 

The cook was found smoking by the manager in the kitchen by the manager

(2) She told us to follow her instructions. 

We were told to follow her instructions by her.

(3) We often hear him play the guitar.

He is often heard to play the guitar.

 

总结:带复合宾语(宾语+ 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面;在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带 to,但改成被动语态后都带to,这时不定式为主语补足语,也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略to 的问题。

 

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